Positronium atomic formation in the Eikonal direct approximation
F
Shojaei
دانشکده فیزیک دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
author
R
Fathi
دانشکده فیزیک دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
author
H
Afarideh
دانشکده مهندسی انرژی و فیزیک دانشگاه صنعتی امیر کبیر
author
Sh
Azizan
دانشکده فیزیک دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
author
M
Rahmanyan
دانشکده فیزیک دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان
author
text
article
2019
per
Positronium (Ps) formation in a ground state and 2s state of the hydrogen atom by positron impact has been studied within the framework of Eikonal direct approximation in the intermediate and high energy range. For this process, we compute Eikonal charge- exchange scattering amplitude, the differential and total cross sections by reducing the six-dimensional integrals to one-dimensional integrals. Numerical results have been compared with some existing theoretical results and experimental findings.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
1
12
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1326_a6bf2822ddcdafa7e1bd412afde5183a.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.1
Generalization of the Dirichlet to Neumann map method for investigating the band structure of annular metallic photonic crystals
A A
Sedghi
دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی
author
text
article
2019
per
Using the Dirichlet-Neumann mapping method, we were able to calculate the photonic band structure of the annular metal photonic crystals. The surveyed grid is square and scattering centers (bars) are in the form of air rings located on the metal surface, as well as metal rings located in the air. The photonic band structure is calculated for both polarizations E and H for electromagnetic waves. The results indicate that there are frequency bands (photon strips) plus flat bands at low light speeds. The effect of the size of the air and metal rings on photonic tape structures has been theoretically investigated
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
13
22
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1327_ba5580601209d31f7fafe6e9c82184cb.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.13
Standard Abelian duality transformations in f(T) gravity
M
Atazadeh
دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان
author
A
Eghbali
دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان
author
text
article
2019
per
According to the perturbation order, the equations of motion of low-energy string effective action are the generalized Einstein equations. Thus, by making use of the conformal transformation of the metric tensor, it is possible to map the low-energy string effective action into f(T) gravity, relating the dilaton field to the torsion scalar. Considering a homogeneous and isotropic universe and writing the canonical Lagrangian for f(T) gravity, we show that the invariance under the duality transformation holds for the cosmic scale factor a(t) at the level of the Lagrangian. Finally, by use of the dualized Lagrangian and also the invariance of torsion scalar under the scale factor duality a(t)→1/a(t), the specific form of the f(T) function is obtained.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
23
29
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1328_1b156adbc00fdcd8872b43e4cd9d6d58.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.23
Holographic calculation of two-point correlation functions of CFT stress tensor in the BMS gauge and flat-space holography
R
Fareghbal
دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
author
P
Karimi
دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, we use the holographic renormalization method to calculate the two-point correlation functions of the CFT stress tensor. In the gravity side, we write the asymptotically AdS spacetimes in the BMS gauge and apply the standard holographic renormalization method for these space-times. The significance of using multi-point functions in this gauge is that its flat-space limit is well-defined. We discuss this point in the last section of the paper.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
31
37
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1329_0ea5628eef77dfac83615006acfc1f8c.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.31
Parameterization of Woods-Saxon potential in view of Particle-vibration coupling for 208Pb
L
Rafat-Motavalli
دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
S H
Miri-Hakimabad
دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
E
Hoseinian-Azghadi
دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
author
text
article
2019
per
In this study, the particle-vibration coupling for nuclei around 208Pb was taken into account. Then, Hamiltonian matrix in the basis of particle vibration eigenvectors was constructed and after matrix Diagonalization, fitting with experimental states was performed. Therefore, a set of pure single particle states was obtained which also called modified experimental levels. The results show that the neutron and proton energy gap were considerably increased to 0.81 MeV and 0.39 MeV in modified spectrum, respectively. The shell model parameters of phenomenological Woods-Saxon (WS) potential was then adjusted to reproduce these modified experimental states. The results showed that, WS potential with the help of new parameters predict the experimental states more precisely.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
39
47
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1330_89dfc6e5c3f42fc2195b0af413b307a1.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.39
Ambiguity in the value of the structure function of many fermion systems at the very small momentum transfer
y
Younesizadeh
دانشگاه فرهنگیان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تهران جنوب،دانشکده علوم پایه،گروه فیزیک
author
text
article
2019
per
First the structure function of the many fermion systems is written in terms of the fluctuation of the target density and too the value of this function at very small momentum transfer is calculated. It is shown that the values of the structure function of these systems at very small momentum transfer calculated from two different ways which one is the mathematical straight way and other way is the sum rules of the quantum fluids, are not equal. This topic transparently is a paradox for the many-fermion systems and must be considered. Finally for removing this paradox, we offer a new defination for the response function or the structure function of the many fermion systems.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
49
51
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1331_665c7dd8a9d298cc31fbfcde3263678a.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.49
Rotation of the free layer of titanium dioxide nano-fluid in an external electric field
M
Soleimani Tabar
دانشگاه زنجان
author
R
Rasul
دانشگاه زنجان
author
R
Shirsavar
دانشگاه زنجان
author
S
Mollaei
دانشگاه زنجان
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the response of the freely suspended nano-fluid was investigated in an external electric field. Applying the external electric field to liquid film carrying electric current caused the layer rotation. It was due to the surface charge response of the layer to the electric field. The effect of surface charge on titanium dioxide nano-fluid rotation at various concentrations was studied. The results showed that the presence of nanoparticles in the fluid doubled the rotation velocity. Also, the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the rotation velocity of the fluid was examined, showing that there was no significant impact on rotation velocity. Finally, the needed time to reach the maximum rotation velocity of the nano-fluids layers was measured
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
53
57
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1332_25895e1d99a72d3e66104f8fcdf7d549.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.53
Study of synthesis of some Flerovium isotopes, Fl, in the island of stability and comparison of their fusion barrier parameters
H
Eslamizadeh
دانشگاه خلیج فارس بوشهر
author
text
article
2019
per
In the present research, we want to study synthesis of some isotopes of Flerovium ، ، and were produced in the nuclear fusion of 48Ca ions with 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu nuclei. We obtain the parameters of the fusion barriers between48Ca ions with Pu isotopes and compare these parameters with each other. Furthermore, we investigate influence of the direction of target nuclei on the parameters of the fusion barriers. we show that the minimum energies for synthesis of 287Fl, 288Fl, 289Fl and 290Fl nuclei are 184.16 MeV, 183.95 MeV, 183.75 MeV and 183.56 MeV. Finally in the framework of the statistical model, we estimate the evaporation residue cross section for 286Fl, 287Fl nuclei after emission of three and four neutrons from 290Fl nuclei and we will show that the results of calculations for 286Fl nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental data. Although, the results of the calculations of the evaporation residue cross section for 287Fl nuclei lie somewhat below the results of the experimental data.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
59
66
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1333_a932ed64b3c990c1c6a72bcf9e1f77b1.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.59
Measuring the optical depth profile of galaxy clusters by kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovic effect
Sh
Baghram
دانشکده فیزیک دانشاه صنعتی شریف
author
text
article
2019
per
baryonic matter distribution in the large-scale structures is one of the main questions in cosmology. This distribution can provide valuable information regarding the processes of galaxy formation and evolution. On the other hand, the missing baryon problem is still under debate. One of the most important cosmological structures for studying the rate and the distribution of the baryons is galaxy clusters. In this work, it is proposed that the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters, which has a supernova type Ia (SNe Ia) in their brightest central galaxy, can be used to obtain the optical depth profile of the galaxy cluster. To obtain this profile , the bulk velocity is calculated by SNe Ia. We show that for galaxy clusters in the redshift range of Z<0.15
, we can find the optical depth with 100 kpc resolution, which is the same as 1 arc minute resolution in cosmic microwave background observations.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
67
73
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1334_08ee8f33bbfb885d612339b2c6d1c869.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.67
Inflationary Cosmology in Anisotropic Inflation Models
H
Firouzjahi
پژوهشکده نجوم، پژوهشگاه دانش های بنیادی
author
A A
Abolhasani
دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران
author
text
article
2019
per
In this work, we study the anisotropic inflationary models . In these models, an abelian gauge field non-minimally coupled to the inflaton field plays a role in the inflation dynamicIn a gauge field,the backgroundanswer is anisotropic, in the form of metric Bianchi. In order for the model to be consistent with the observations, the level of anisotropy should be small. The anisotropy power spectrum is obtained by calculating cosmological perturbation using formalism. We show that the criticism levelled in [4] does not apply and we can repeat the calculations in the non-absorbence by calculating the anisotropy spectrum. Using the constraint on the quadrupole anisotopy, we show that the contribution of the gauge field to total energy density should be very small
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
75
80
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1335_0c628f64a8a9bed999aa123b19d30406.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.75
Determination of optimum Distance for ALBORZ-1 array
G
Rastegarzadeh
دانشگاه سمنان
author
L
Rafezi
دانشگاه سمنان
author
text
article
2019
per
Optimum distance is defined as a distance from the air -shower core in which the density of a number of particles calculated by the lateral distribution function at that distance has the least uncertainty. Furthermore, with a good approximation, this distance is independent of the characteristics of primitive ray and it only depends on the geometric shape of array . In this paper, by simulating 1000 vertical EAS of protons with the energy 300 TeV , using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo code and trigger condition, the calculated distance for the array triggering ALBORZ-1 was found to be equal to 9±1 m. Also, it was found that this distance as well as the density of the number of calculated particles was independent of the lateral distribution function used in the calculations
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
81
89
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1336_1c931839f6e1598318a5d0ee720dd201.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.81
Trace of energy-momentum tensor and gravitational backreaction of Schwinger scalars in 3D de Sitter spacetime
E
Bavarsad
دانشگاه کاشان
author
M
Mortezazadeh
دانشگاه کاشان
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, we consider a massive charged scalar field coupled to a uniform electric field background in a 3 dimensional de Sitter spacetime. We consider the value of the dimensionless coupling constant of the scalar field to the scalar curvature of a 3 dimensional de Sitter spacetime equal to 1/8. We compute the expectation value of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in the in-vacuum state and we show that using adiabatic subtraction regularization method the linear ultraviolet divergence is removed and a finite expression obtain. We investigate the behavior of the regularized trace for different intensities of the scalar field mass and the electric field. We show that the trace as a function of the electric field has a discontinuity at which it changes the sign. We show that for the case of a conformally coupled scalar field to the de Sitter spacetime the trace vanishes, and there is no trace anomaly. We discuss the gravitational backreaction effect of the created Schwinger pairs.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
91
103
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1337_224f2fc1957c9c07d007bb776dcd6baa.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.91
Crystal field and Ce3+ ion energy levels of CeCl3 compound
L
Mollabashi
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه اصفهان
author
E
Sadeghi Kelishadi
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه اصفهان
author
S
Jalali-Asadabadi
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه اصفهان
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, the crystal field parameters (CFPs) have been calculated in the framework of the density functional theory using a novel theoretical approach proposed by Pavel Novák et al. and extracting the WANNIER functions from the Bloch eigenstates for the CeCl3 compound. Then, the calculated CFPs have been used in an effective atomic-like Hamiltonian, including the crystal field, 4f-4f correlation and spin-orbit coupling, and the splitted energy levels of Ce3+ ion by crystal field have been derived by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. A hybridization parameter, , has been used to improve the results. The results are found to be in agreement with the experimental data
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
105
113
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1338_b21750288dd56b4e6bbe1b87691df227.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.105
Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Simultaneous Measurement of Refractive Index and Physical Thickness of Multiple layers
A
Amjadi
دانشگاه صنعتی شریف
author
Kh
Ghasemi Falavarjani
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران
author
N
Moazami Gudarzi
دانشگاه صنعتی شریف
author
text
article
2019
per
In fourier domain optical coherence tomography, we can measure the optical thickness ( refractive index n times thickness d), to obtain the retinal layers in order to diagnose many disorders. In this work, we introduce a new method for measurement of refractive index and physical thickness of multiple layers simultaneously by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography, without additional information about the structure of the sample under investigation. The input data to the formulation are the interference spectrum of FD-OCT system and the optical path lengths (OPLs) which obtain from fast fourier transform of interference spectrum. The output of simulation suggest that, the accuracy of the extracted parameters depend on the difference in the refractive index gradient of sample interfaces. Furthermore, we show that the accuracy of the extracted parameters can be affected by uncertainty in obtained OPLs. So, we introduce a method to optimize the accuracy of parameters in spite of uncertainty in measuring OPLs. Simulation results show that, for transparent biological sample merge into an aqueous media, if sample layers has indices less than 1.55 , these parameters can be extracted with the , less than 0.001 .
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
115
124
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1339_41544c1e55faf125aa5ca5a37f6fbe27.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.115
Numerical analysis of fold-pitchfork bifurcation with symmetry and its application in the pipe flow
R
Mazrooei-Sebdani
دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان
author
Z
Eskandari
دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, we study the numerical analysis of fold-pitchfork bifurcation with Z2 symmetry. For this purpose, explicit formulas for the critical coefficients of this bifurcation are obtained and non-degeneracy conditions of this bifurcation are determined. Then, local bifurcations, bifurcation curves and phase portraits are computed by MatCont toolbox. We will emphasize an example serving as a model of pipe flow
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
125
137
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1340_993c45a9fdb35c1db7452208b10472a4.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.125
Investigation of solution effect on the EPR spectrum of alanine radicals based on density functional theory
M
Janbazi
پژوهشکده کاربرد پرتوها، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، تهران
author
Y
Taghipour Azar
پژوهشکده فیزیک و شتابگرها، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، تهران
author
F
Ziaie
پژوهشکده کاربرد پرتوها، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، تهران
author
text
article
2019
per
In this study, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT), the effect of solution on the g-tensor, hyperfine coupling constant of atoms and finally the EPR spectrum of alanine free radicals induced by ionizing radiation such as electron and gamma was investigated using implicit models such as COSMO, and explicit models such as introducing hydrogen bonds to the cluster structures. The obtained results confirmed a good consistency between the g-tensor and hyperfine coupling constant of atoms and the experimental data in the solution as well as qualitatively in the crystal by the introduction of the hydrogen bond of the water molecule to the cluster models. The use of different clusters in constituting hydrogen bonds between water molecule and radicals indicated that in the first shell, four, seven and six water molecules were needed for R1, R2 and R3 radicals, respectively. Moreover, the effect of solution on EPR spectrum was analyzed in a manner that the identity of the radical remained unchanged.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
139
150
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1341_5d1514b139ba0e808b2c465b17da16ae.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.139
Simulation of the physical properties of BaMnxMo1-xO3 (x=0, 0.5, 1) perovskite compound using density functional theory and Hubbardâs correction
A
mokhtari
گروه فیزیک، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد
author
R
Ebrahimi Jaberi
گروه فیزیک، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper, we have simulated the physical properties of BaMnxMo1-xO3 (x=0, 0.5, 1) perovskite compound by the density functional theory and Hubbard model, using the Espersso code. To calculate the exchange-correlation potential in the Kohn Sham equations, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used. Also, because the calculated results indicate that U parameter plays a vital role in determining the electronic characterization in our compound, we have repeated our calculations using the LDA+U instead of the GGA approximation. In both GGA and LDA+U approximations, we have studied the ferromagnetic state of the cubic phase of BaMnxMo1-xO3 (x=0, 0.5, 1) compound. Then, we have investigated the behaviour of the Lattice Parameter, Cohesive Energy, Total Magnetization and Bulk Module of the corresponding compound for the different values of x. After that, by fitting our results using the second order polynomial function, we have studied the reasons for the deviation from Vegard’s law for each parameter.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
151
156
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1342_f195b765b3ab7ed45d8f119cee5bec64.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.151
Feasibility of the use of ( ZnxHg(1-x)Te ternary compound as a spectrometer of nuclear radiations
H
Ghasemi
دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد . پژوهشکده مواد، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، اصفهانپژوهشکده مواد، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، اصفهان
author
A
Mokhtari
دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد
author
F
Payami
پژوهشکده مواد، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هستهای، اصفهان
author
V
Soleimanian
دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper in order to achieve a suitable spectrometer for nuclear radiation detection at room temperature, effect of adding the element Hg to binary compound semiconductor ZnTe was studied completely. Electronic structure and transport properties of ternary compound semiconductor ZnxHg(1-x)Te (ZHT) simulated using ABINIT as a computational code based on density functional theory. According to this simulation the range of x≥0.8 was selected. This simulations including good response function compared to CdTe simulated by using MCNP as a computational code, shows that ZHT in the above range is a suitable nuclear spectrometer at room temperature.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
157
162
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1343_5e93e5d24114a365e08cef66b7abd74b.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.157
Phantom divide crossing with non-minimal kinetic and gauss-bonnet couplings
A
Banijamali
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی بابل، بابل
author
R
Roohollahi
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی بابل، بابل
author
M
vaez
گروه فیزیک، دانشگاه صنعتی بابل، بابل
author
text
article
2019
per
In this paper we study a dark energy model in which tachyon scalar field non-minimally coupled with kinetic energy and Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Energy density рø, pressure рø and scalar field equation of motion have been calculated and then equation of state parameter has been extracted. We have investigated the conditions required for ω=-1 crossing in such a model. It is shown that phantom divide crossing can be realized in our model.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
163
166
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1344_df46bba0f67eb466131f89f126c1fbf5.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.163
A planar metamaterial design for electromagnetically induced transparency
ُ S
Ahmadi
گروه فیزیک، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس
author
A
Rezaei-Latifi
گروه فیزیک، دانشکده علوم، دانشگاه هرمزگان، بندرعباس
author
text
article
2019
per
Electromagnetically induced transparency is an optical phenomenon that is characterized by the elimination of the effect of a medium on a propagating beam of electromagnetic radiation in a specific frequency band. In this study, EIT was investigated at a proposed metamaterial with the dimensions milimeter and in the area of frequency of GHz. The computation results indicated that EIT with high transmission rate and high Q factor occurs in certain frequencies by breaking the symmetry in this structure. The sensitivity studies showed that the use of silver in the structure increases the quality factor so significantly that this quantity reaches 338 for gold and copper, while it reaches 677 for silver. In addition, By reducing the temperature, the transmission rate in the structure increases and reaches acceptable degree 98%. This structure can be an appropriate option for slow light usages, and it can be utilized for light amplification in microwave structures.
Iranian Journal of Physics Research
https://www.psi.ir/physics_society_iran_1_home
1682-6957
18
v.
1
no.
2019
167
175
http://ijpr.iut.ac.ir/article_1345_f01622ebc6f0bbfa48a463af17f5f7e4.pdf
dx.doi.org/10.29252/ijpr.18.1.167