Document Type : Original Article


Faculty of physics, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran


In this article, an attempt has been made to measure the speed of air flow by releasing and tracking electric ions in it. In fact, if an electrical discharge plasma is exposed to air flow, some of its ions move along with the flow, and ion anemometers measure the air speed by tracking these ions. In this research, a wind tunnel has been designed and prepared. Then an ion anemometer is made and installed on its wall. According to the obtained results, the effect of the boundary layer adjacent to the wall on the movement of ions causes the speed measured by the ion anemometer to show a certain proportion with the speed of the air flowing inside the wind tunnel. In order to properly understand the physical mechanism involved in this problem, first the movement of ions in the boundary layer has been investigated using simulation and then it has been studied more analytically. The results of the experiments, together with the simulation data and the analytically calculated values, show that the tracked ions, instead of moving in the uniform background flow, move downstream in the boundary layer adjacent to the wall at a lower speed, so that this proportionality phenomenon defines the measured velocities and shows the effect of the boundary layer on the performance of ion anemometers.


Main Subjects

  1. Y P Raizer, J E  Allen, “Gas discharge physic”, Springer,  Germany, )1991(.
  2. J R Roth, “Industrial Plasma Engineering: Volume 1”, Institute of Physics Publishing, England, (1995).
  3. F C Lindvall,  Eng. 53 (1934) 1068.
  4. R F Mettler, “The anemometric application of an electrical glow discharge in transverse air streams”, California Institute of Technology, United States, (1949).
  5. A Morgan  and T Vrebalovich, “Investigation of Direct and Alternating Current Flow Anemometers”, California Institute of Technology, United states, (1950).
  6. F Werner, Sci. Instrum. 21 (1950) 61.
  7. F D Werner and R L  Geronime, “Applications of the Corona Discharge for Measurements of Density and Velocity Transients in Air Flow”, Minnesota Univ Rosemount Rosemount Aeronautical Labs, United States, (1953).
  8. B Yu, P Yuan, and E Shen, Measurement, 112 (2017) 80.
  9. B Yu, E Shen, P Yuan, and H Shen, Sens. 2017 (2017) 1.
  10. B Yu, P Yuan, E Shen, and H Shen, EP J AP 81 (2018) 30801.
  11. G L Mellen, Electronics 23 (1950) 80.
  12. R Munnikhuysen, CADO Technical Data Digest 13 (1948) 7.
  13. B Boyd, R G Dorsch, and G H Brodie, “True Airspeed Measurement by Ionization-tracer Technique”,  NACA R. M. E52C31, United States, (1952).
  14. W B Kunkel, and L Talbot, “Ion tracer technique for airspeed measurement at low densities”,  NACA TN 3177 , pp 31, United States, (1954).
  15. W C Cooley and H G  Stever,  Sci. Instrum. 23 (1952) 151.
  16. R Bass III, C  Gerlach, T  Owen, and S Suhler, “Low velocity gas flow measurement Final technical report”, No. NASA-CR-103096, United States, (1971).
  17. E Evlanov, B Zubkov, D Nenarokov, V Linkin, M Zavjalov, and P Tyuryukanov, Cosmic Res. 39 (2001) 453.
  18. D Gardiner, G Wang, M Bardon, M Laviolette, and W D Allan, J Eng Gas Turbine Power 130 (2008)
  19. B Chua and J J Pak, SENSOR ACTUAT A-PHYS 224 (2015) 65.
  20. P Béquin, V  Joly, and P  Herzog, Acta Acust United Acust. 104 (2018) 477.
  21. P Béquin, A Nanda Tonlio, and S Durand, Phys. Rev. 127 (2020) 034502.
  22. S Nijdam, E Van Veldhuizen, P Bruggeman, and U Ebert, “An introduction to nonequilibrium plasmas at atmospheric pressure, Plasma chemistry and catalysis in gases and liquids”, Wiley-VCH, United States, (2012).
  23. F F Chen, “Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion”, Plenum Press, United States, (1984).
  24. Y Guan, R S  Vaddi, A  Aliseda, and I  Novosselov,  Rev. Fluids 3 (2018) 043701.
  25. L Zhao, and K  Adamiak, Sci. Technol. 34 (2016) 63.
  26. N E Jewell-Larsen, S V  Karpov, I A  Krichtafovitch, V  Jayanty, C -P  Hsu, and A V  Mamishev, ESA Annual Meeting on Electrostatics, Paper E, Citeseer (2008) 1.
  27. J S Chang, A J  Kelly, and J M  Crowley, “Handbook of Electrostatic Processes”, Taylor & Francis, United States, (1995).
  28. A M Howatson, “An Introduction to Gas Discharges”, Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies, Elsevier Science, England, (2013).
  29. A Fridman  and L A  Kennedy, “Plasma Physics and Engineering”, Second Edition, Taylor & Francis, United States, (2011).
  30. T Maruyama and T Katayama, Appl. Phys. 94 (2003) 7365.
  31. W Jones, D  Maidment, and D  Morgan, phys. E1 (1968) 623.
  32. F W Peek, “Dielectric phenomena in high voltage engineering”, McGraw-Hill, United states, (1920).
  33. F M White, "Fluid Mechanics", McGraw-Hill, United States )2011(.

ارتقاء امنیت وب با وف ایرانی